Ir al contenido principal

Los virus, protagonistas en algunas soluciones

En los seis tratamientos autorizados, bien por la FDA, bien por la EMA, o por ambas, que abajo se menciona intervienen los virus, bien como propia solución, bien como vector para modificar células que van a ser el tratamiento.

Autorizados por EMA y FDA con intervención de virus (rojo= virus es el tratamiento)
Medicamento virus
IMLYGIC (talimogene laherparepvec)  IMLYGIC was derived from a novel primary HSV-1 isolate (JS1, ECACC Accession Number 01010209) that demonstrates enhanced oncolytic activity towards tumor cells, as compared to the commonly used laboratory strains (e.g., 17syn+). To produce IMLYGIC, the JS1 strain was genetically modified by deleting the virulence genes that code for ICP34.5 (also called the neurovirulence gene) and ICP47 (an immune escape gene). Wild type HSV-1 contains two copies of the gene for ICP34.5, and both copies were functionally deleted in IMLYGIC by inserting two copies of human GM-CSF gene sequences. Each copy of hGMCSF is constitutively expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early promoter. Deletion of the ICP47 gene also resulted in converting the HSV-1 late gene US11 into an immediate early gene, under the ICP47 promoter. The IMLYGIC virions are enveloped and have a diameter of about . Each virion contains a capsid that encloses a double-stranded DNA genome of roughly .
KYMRIAH (tisagenlecleucel)  KYMRIAH : The reprogramming of the patient's T cells uses a lentiviral vector to encode an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The CAR is comprised of a murine single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) specific for CD19, followed by a CD8 hinge and transmembrane region that is fused to the intracellular signaling domains from 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3 zeta [FDA Label]. These intracellular costimulatory signaling domains increase the expansion, longer-term persistence and potency of CAR T cells: the CD3 zeta component is critical for initiating T-cell activation and antitumor activity, while 4-1BB enhances the expansion and persistence of tisagenlecleucel {FDA Label, A20379]. Upon binding to CD19-expressing cells, the CAR transmits a signal to promote T-cell expansion, activation, target cell elimination, and persistence of the tisagenlecleucel cells (DRUGBANK)
LUXTURNA (voretigene neparvovec-rzyl)  LUXTURNA is a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer and chicken beta actin (CβA) promoter driving expression of the gene for human retinal pigment epithelium 65 kDa protein (hRPE65),
YESCARTA (axicabtagene ciloleucel)  YESCARTA: The T cells are harvested and genetically modified ex vivo by retroviral transduction to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) comprising a murine anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) linked to CD28 and CD3-zeta co-stimulatory domains [FDA Label]. These anti-CD19 CAR T cells are expanded and infused back into the patient. (DRUGBANK) 
Strimvelis vector retroviral que codifica la secuencia de ADNc de ADA humana para modificar linfocitos CD 34
Zalmoxis retroviral vector encoding for a truncated form of the human low affinity nerve growth factor receptor (ΔLNGFR) and the herpes simplex I virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK Mut2)